In 2014, I have the honor to lead a team for the 4th straight year to study the breeding ecology of the Northern Goshawk within the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest. This work continues IBO’s focus on this species and fits into a multiple-year research plan to assess the importance of this possibly isolated population of goshawks with respect to the broader biogeographical context of the species.
Not all of the Sawtooth National Forest is near the Sawtooth Mountains. The five sections of the Minidoka Ranger District of the Sawtooth National Forest in south-central Idaho/northern Utah, USA.
It is probably worth pointing out that not all of the Sawtooth National Forest is near the Sawtooth Mountains. It is a common and understandable misconception. There are three ranger districts in central Idaho encompassing the Sawtooth Mountains (SNRA, Ketchum, and Fairfield), but there is one district south of the Snake River, spread across five “forest islands” (Fig. 1). This later district, known as the Minidoka district, is where our recent work was performed. This district includes four sections in Idaho and one in northern Utah.
The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis; hereafter “goshawk”) is of interest to many resource management agencies. It is considered a “sensitive species” by the USDA Forest Service and a “regional/state imperiled species” by the BLM. The goshawk has twice been petitioned as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act, but the petition was rejected on both occasions. The Sawtooth National Forest has identified the goshawk as a local Management Indicator Species. As such they must monitor the health of the population and make forest management decisions based upon the results. The species has received a lot of monitoring attention within the South Hills off and on over the past 20 years, but much less attention has been applied in the other sections.
The Minidoka Ranger District is located in the northern portion of the Great Basin. The Great Basin consists largely of shrub-steppe habitat with forested landscapes only at higher elevations. Even at these higher elevations the forest is still fragmented with most of the trees on northern facing slopes and in drainages. The result is an island-like landscape where the space between the “islands” consists largely of shrubland and native grassland. In the modern era, the matrix between fragments is also distinguished by agriculture, increasing development, and an increasing transformation to invasive grasslands. The size and isolation of these “islands” influences the species diversity which is able to survive within each fragment. The theory of Island Biogeography predicts that species diversity is related to the size of the island (larger islands have more species) and the distance to the next population (islands closer to mainlands have more species). In general, this theory applies to forest fragments as well, but the degree is determined by what occupies the matrix land between fragments and whether the matrix is easily traversed by dispersing individuals. Birds can easily fly to the next island, but mammalian dispersal is much more limited. The South Hills and nearby Albion Mountains present a unique prey assemblage for goshawks as their most common diet of tree squirrels are naturally absent, although tree squirrels do exist in the Sublett and Black Pines Mountains.
Tree Squirrels, a common part of most goshawks’ diets, are naturally absent from the South Hills.
American Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
The lack of tree squirrels has led to the rise of the South Hills Crossbill as a sub-species of the Red Crossbill, but that is a whole other story with many ecological lessons as well.
South Hills Crossbill, “South Hills”, Sawtooth National Forest.
During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, the focus of our research, and my thesis, was on the diet of the goshawk in this unusual prey landscape (Miller et al. 2014), the habitat use of the goshawks in this landscape (Miller et al. 2013), and the influence of prey abundance on nest occupancy and productivity (Miller et al. In review). This effort was focused on the Cassia section of the forest, also known as, the South Hills.
One of the most significant results from this recent work in the South Hills was a habitat suitability model, or statistical model which predicts areas with appropriate characteristics for goshawk nesting. In 2012, the model helped us find a number of new territories. In 2013, we applied this model to the Black Pines and Sublett sections of the forest and then spent a few weeks surveying the highest priority areas, discovering a half dozen previously unknown goshawk territories.
In 2014, we will cross the border outside of Idaho into northern Utah and the Raft River range. This will be the first time the area has been formally surveyed. The model predicts some, but not a lot, of suitable habitat. We will also survey the Albion mountains where we expect to discover a number of new nesting structures, hopefully occupied by goshawks. To finish the survey effort, we plan to check all historical nesting structures in the other three sections of the forest to determine which are occupied this year. It may sound easy, but we have documented over 110 nesting structures across a broad geographic area which were likely built by goshawks!
In 2012, we also collected blood samples from nestling goshawks to analyze for parasite infection, which we found in large numbers (Jeffries et al. In review). This year we are excited to bring on an NSF-funded intern who will work with a visiting Fulbright Scholar to evaluate the genetic health and diversity of the goshawks using those existing blood samples. We will also be gathering additional samples in the field this year. Look forward to more publications from IBO in the future.
Emmy, Alexis, and Heidi with nestling goshawk, “South Hills”, Sawtooth National Forest.
We have a full agenda ahead to meet the forest service requirements for monitoring this species across the five sections. However, we are seeking additional funding from other sources to fund the work to help place the Great Basin population of birds into a broader geographical context. We know from past studies that some birds do disperse between islands within the Great Basin to breed (Independence Mountains in Nevada to the South Hills in Idaho). However, we don’t know to what degree the Great Basin individuals mix with birds in the more contiguous Rocky Mountains or even the Pacific coast populations. We have some great work ahead of us.
But in the short term, I can’t wait to get my feet back on the ground within the Sawtooth National Forest! It is a unique and fantastic place.
Female Northern Goshawk on nest, “South Hills”, Sawtooth National Forest.
Miller, R. A., J. D. Carlisle, M. J. Bechard, and D. Santini. 2013. Predicting nesting habitat of Northern Goshawks in mixed aspen-lodgepole pine forests in a high-elevation shrub-steppe dominated landscape. Open Journal of Ecology 3:109–115.
Miller, R. A., J. D. Carlisle, and M. J. Bechard. 2014. Effects of prey abundance on breeding season diet of Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) within an unusual prey landscape. Journal of Raptor Research 48 (1):In Press.
Miller, R. A., J. D. Carlisle, and M. J. Bechard. In Review. Prey abundance and forest structural influences on occupancy and productivity of Northern Goshawks within a mixed forest and shrub community in the Great Basin, USA.
Jeffries, M. I., R. A. Miller, M. D. Laskowski, and J. D. Carlisle. In Review. High prevalence of Leucocytozoon parasites in nestling Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in the northern Great Basin USA.
Back in December I was presented with an opportunity to attend a January conference in San Diego and I was really torn. I knew I would have lots of deadlines this month and, while I very much enjoy the traveling, meeting new people, and seeing old friends that goes along with conferences, it’s become a bigger part of my work life and sometimes it’s nice to just stay home! But then I thought, “San Diego isn’t that far from the Salton Sea and ‘Borah’ (a curlew that breeds in the Pahsimeroi Valley of east-central Idaho) has been there for almost 2 months – if he stays and I could go look for him, that’d be worthwhile” and my decision was made. I could attend the conference – very worthwhile, by the way (the M. J. Murdock Charitable Trust’s Partners in Science program) – and then take advantage of the long weekend afterwards to go on a bit of a road trip. Of course, maybe I could fit in a little birding too :-).
Before leaving Boise last week I called the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge and reached a very friendly Mark Stewart, an education specialist, who told me how many curlews he’d seen lately (A LOT!) and gave me contact information for the biologists. Fortunately for me, Katie Montgomery was willing to spend part of her day off on Sunday afternoon touring me around the refuge and nearby agricultural habitats.
I didn’t drive directly from San Diego to the Salton Sea, however. I noticed on eBird that 2 of the many Blue-footed Boobies that ventured north and inland last fall were still lingering at a place I’d never been called Lake Skinner County Park, roughly between San Diego and Riverside. So, I got up too early on Sunday and drove to the park and it was well worth it – the boobies were easy to find so I spent a little time exploring the park and found LOADS of birds (maybe the long-running drought is concentrating even more birds at this oasis?), including some wintering migrants like Lark & White-crowned Sparrows and Townsend’s, Orange-crowned, and Yellow-rumped Warblers. I was most excited to see a few species I rarely get a chance to, such as California Gnatcatcher, Red-breasted Sapsucker, Nuttall’s Woodpecker, and Oak Titmouse. I literally had to force myself to leave but I had some miles to cover across some beautiful southern California foothills to get to the Salton Sea.
I arrived at our meeting spot (the Circle K in Westmorland) a little early so I used my phone to check the latest transmission locations from Borah’s satellite transmitter – a bay with mudflats on the refuge and a couple locations from nearby farm fields. We started by heading out to the refuge and I was amazed at the bird numbers – a cloud of Snow & Ross’s Geese, many raptors, sparrows fleeing from the road edges, and then tremendous waterbird numbers once we arrived at ‘the sea’.
The birds were very distant and many of the curlews (I estimated about 180 in view) were either behind ducks or roosting with their bill tucked and one leg pulled up into their belly feathers. Thus, it would have been hard to see Borah’s color band or the antenna from his transmitter but I still gave it a shot! Katie, probably thinking ‘this guy is crazy if he thinks he’s going to see a color band from this distance’, was very patient with me and we enjoyed the birding in general, including a Sora that called once from the nearby marsh. Once I’d had my fill, we moved on to a few farm fields where recent transmissions had come from. A couple places with taller crops were likely areas where the bird had been flying over but we finally found a recently-irrigated field with loads of ibis and gulls and Katie said, “this is the type of situation I usually see curlews in when they’re in agriculture”.
We couldn’t see any curlews at first but we figured it was worth bringing out our scopes since Borah had been here just hours before … While first scanning through the ibis horde, I briefly thought I saw something brown but then it vanished and I wondered if I just really wanted to see a curlew so badly after coming this far! But, I scanned further left and found some curlews (about 18) – and there were also about 10 Black-bellied Plovers here (we’d seen over 100 of these back at ‘the sea’).
I tried in vain to find Borah but to no avail. I have to imagine he’d either been in view but hard to distinguish, flying over, or at least within a mile of us during our search. I knew it was a longshot to actually find one curlew among all these birds and at day’s end I was happy to have seen a few of the places where this curlew, whom I’d first seen and captured in late May near the historic settlement of Goldburg, Idaho, had been in the days and hours before our search. And, after studying White-faced Ibis for the first time in the summer of 2012, I really enjoyed getting to see similar concentrations using flood-irrigated agriculture on the wintering grounds as well.
Thanks to Borah for willingly carrying the lightweight burden of the satellite transmitter, teaching us about the rest of your life outside of Idaho, and for inspiring a fun road trip! Likewise, thanks to Katie Montgomery for giving up her off-day to show me some of the places that Borah has called home recently. Here’s to hoping I’ll see Borah back in the Pahsimeroi this May!
Since all our transmittered curlews left Idaho, I’ve watched their movements with excitement as it seems that every week or two something unexpected happens. It’s already been an eventful non-breeding season in terms of challenges faced by our curlews:
- Ada met her end soon after arriving to the Merced area of California in late July (story here)
- Curley, the first curlew to migrate (early June) then passed away in late September (her remains were found in an alfalfa field and we were unable to determine cause of death). She had spent her first 1.5 months in California (mid-June to late July) bouncing around agricultural lands between Fresno and Bakersfield before jumping to an area south of Bakersfield in late July (see below).
Thus, since late September we’ve been following the two remaining birds, Borah and Emmett, both males, and hoping they’d survive and keep teaching us. Watching Borah hadn’t been too exciting because he was staying put in a big way – in 4 months he hardly moved 500 meters since arriving at the mouth of the Colorado River in the Gulf of California. Specifically, he was spending time on Isla Montague, a rich delta environment that, according to a few Mexican colleagues I’ve been able to communicate with, supports HUGE numbers of shorebirds.
Meanwhile, Emmett had been exhibiting a little more wanderlust – spending a lot of time south of Fresno before moving up to the Los Banos area and undergoing more short-distance movements in each area (see below)
Then, almost simultaneously, both males made relatively long flights to the northwest:
On November 6th, Emmett started with a short hop and then gradually made his way to an area west of Sacramento – over 200km from where he’d been.
On November 8th, Borah started moving northwest and has seemingly settled at the southern end of the Salton Sea – about 175km from where he’d been.
So, why did both birds suddenly shift wintering areas in early November? We don’t expect them back in Idaho until mid-March at the earliest. Did something change in terms of food availability simultaneously in both areas (seems unlikely given that Borah’s been in an estuarine environment and Emmett in grasslands and agriculture) or is there some internal clock that causes both birds, and presumably the flocks they are wintering with, to move around the same time? Only time will tell … and hopefully more transmitters attached next breeding season will help us learn more. In the meantime, I’ll keep crossing my fingers that our transmittered males can survive the winter and return to breed in 2014!
For the past two years, IBO and Boise State University’s Sensory Ecology Lab have collaborated on a large-scale research project to discover what effects road noise might have on the birds that use Lucky Peak as a migration stop over site.
If you’ve visited Lucky Peak recently, you may have heard about the “Phantom Road” project, or asked questions about the strange fuzzy wind-screens hanging in the shrubs.
IBO Outreach Specialist and Boise State Graduate Student Heidi Ware, worked with her adviser–Boise State professor, Dr. Jesse Barber –and post-doctoral researcher–Dr. Chris McClure –to set up 15 sets of speakers in trees along the ridgeline. This allowed them to play back recorded road noise, replicating the sound of a 500 yard long stretch of busy highway. They turned the road noise on and off over 4 day blocks throughout fall migration, and also compared our data from the ridge to IBO’s data from Lucky Peak, so they could contrast migrant birds exposed to noise vs those that were not.
Now, after two years of field work and crunching a lot of numbers, the Sensory Ecology research team finally has some results to share with you!
This week we published the first paper about the project, sharing the results of our songbird point count surveys. (Get the full text of our article, “An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road”, here).
We counted birds near the “road” and birds near Lucky Peak and found some important differences between loud and quiet sites. We documented more than a one-quarter decline in overall bird numbers.
Even the most common species were impacted negatively by the road noise. Yellow Warblers and Cedar Waxwings almost completely avoided the Phantom Road site when the noise was turned on.
Why is this research so important?
This research is the first to show that road noise alone can have negative impacts on birds. This is important because until now studies have only shown that roads are bad for birds. It’s unlikely that anyone is going to tear out a road to protect migrants. However, if we can show that noise is one of the main factors causing the negative impact of roads, we can take measures to make roads quieter without eliminating them all together. (Ex: changing the road substrate, creating barriers to buffer sound, changing speed limits, or even limiting daily traffic through areas such as National Parks).
Right now, 83% of the continental US is within hearing distance (1km) of a road, so you can see why research on this topic is necessary!
The conservation community has been waiting for research like this, which might help protect habitat in roaded areas. Within a day of our paper being published, reporters all over the world began sharing our research findings. From NPR, to UK’s ‘The Telegraph‘, to conservation and science news sites, the word is spreading quickly.
This is the first paper to come out of our research on the “phantom road” project, but stay tuned for more updates when Heidi shares results from her thesis work!
We’ve learned a lot about our transmittered Curlews so far as we tracked their movements on the breeding grounds in Idaho and then followed their migration south for the winter. Part of the reason we wanted to follow these Idaho Curlews was to help us learn why their populations are declining. Unfortunately Curlews lead dangerous lives, and yet another one of our birds has met their demise.
The transmitters attached to the birds allow us to monitor their location, but also give off a signal indicating whether the transmitter has moved recently. This gives a good indication whether the bird is still alive. As we watched our birds, we noticed that while Ada’s transmitter was still sending a strong GPS signal from near Merced, CA, her transmitter had not moved.
As we began to investigate further, Jay suspected that Ada was no longer living. Jay began to contact biologists in the area to see if we could find out exactly where Ada’s transmitter was. Jay had earlier alerted Greg Gerstenberg, a biologist with California Department of Fish and Wildlife who works in that area, and colleagues that a couple of “our” curlews had migrated to their region. Upon learning of our next mystery, Greg immediately expressed a willingness to help us recover the transmitter and Greg helped Jay track down the key landowners in the area: University of California-Merced and the Flying M Ranch, both of whom were very willing to allow us permission to search on their land.
Lucky for us, Jay had already scheduled a flight to California for a pelagic trip with Alvaro’s Adventures and had 3/4 of a day “free”. He brought the tracking unit that allows us to find transmitters on the ground and delivered it to Greg. Greg and his family invited Jay into their home to visit for a while and they had a great time swapping biology stories and exchanging info about curlews. Upon leaving, Greg’s daughter Kendra presented Jay with a neat drawing of a curlew and baby (see below) as a “thank-you” for coming to visit and sharing information! Jay was pleasantly surprised as he was feeling very thankful to Greg and his family and didn’t feel that he was the one to be thanked but it was a touching and much appreciated gift.
The next day our suspicions were confirmed. Greg and his son, Jack, journeyed to the field where Ada’s last transmission had come from. He found the transmitter, intact and still working. He also found a plucked pile of feathers and scavenged remains of Ada’s body. Based on his inspection of the area (which includes a nearby powerline), Greg’s best guess is that Ada was most likely depredated by an avian predator.
He found a large pile of plucked-out feathers, typical of a raptor kill, as well as some other evidence of scavenging. There are many Prairie Falcons that spend the non-breeding season in the area, so it’s possible that one of these speedy predators captured Ada.
We have to admit that we think Prairie Falcons are pretty cool, so we are glad that if she was going to die at least she was able to help nourish a raptor, and that it doesn’t appear her death was human-caused.
While we are sad to lose another bird, she gave us a lot of good information about curlew migration and breeding behavior before she died. By tracking both her and her mate, Emmett, we learned more about how curlew pairs cooperate to raise their young. Ada also became a local celebrity in the Idaho Statesman, and helped us educate the community about Curlews and their conservation needs.
Thanks to Greg, we were able to recover Ada’s transmitter intact, so we will be able to get it re-furbished and use it next year on another curlew!
Check back soon for winter updates on our other three Curlews.
Read previous posts about our Curlew project by clicking the links below:
It’s been an exciting few weeks watching for updates on seaturtle.org (the website that hosts our satellite telemetry data) – armchair biology at its best!! One of our transmittered curlews had already left for California (via Nevada) in early June and we wondered when the next bird would go … Turns out, all three left between July 4th and July 6th. I couldn’t be more excited about the data that these birds are helping us gather!
Both females have migrated at times when their transmitters are in recharge mode (the transmitters are set to transmit for 5 hours and then recharge for 24 hours) so we’ve been able to get stopover locations but not actual in-flight locations.
In contrast, we’ve been able to gather in-flight locations for both males and I’m glad we’ve been able to get some of each!
“Curley” – left on June 8, 1-day stopover in Nevada, and arrived in CA on June 10. She made a lot of local movements (10-40 km) in her first 2 weeks there and then she settled into an area near Kettleman City in the southern portion of California’s Central Valley for about 10 days and recently started exploring again.
“Ada” – looks to have taken off during the fireworks on July 4th and stopped over near Yerington, NV. The next day she arrived to an area about 8 miles NE of Merced, California and she has remained in that vicinity since.
“Borah” – also took off the night of July 4th and flew S towards the Great Salt Lake before veering SW into NV. 24 hours later we got some in-flight locations as it passed just E of Las Vegas. His next locations came from from agricultural land near the Salton Sea and the next day he had crossed over into Mexico. He has since settled into an area near the mouth of the Colorado River, just N of where it flows into the Gulf of California.
“Emmett” – took off the night of July 6th and flew SW past Steens Mountain in Oregon. His next locations were as he crossed the Sierras S of Reno, NV and arrived to the Central Valley S of San Joaquin, CA by July 9 and then moved a bit further S to an area between Kettleman City and Stratford.
Though they are currently within 20 miles of each other, it’s pretty interesting that “Emmett” and “Curley”, whose breeding territories in Idaho were about 3 miles apart, have used areas within a mile of each other in California! Pretty fascinating stuff, huh?!
Now that each bird has been relatively stationary for a while, the next question is whether the birds will stay put for the winter or if they might exhibit some other movements. Please join me in crossing your fingers and toes that these 4 intrepid curlews will survive the rest of the non-breeding season and come back to Idaho in March!
Read previous posts about our Curlew project by clicking the links below:
Today was quite the exciting day at our hummingbird banding event in Idaho City!
It was starting to warm up and capture rate was slowing down when a volunteer brought a hummingbird over to the banding table and said that Gary (one of our skilled trappers) wanted us to take a look at it. Liz peered at the bird though the bag and we could hear the excitement in her voice. Soon everyone was gathered around to take a look at the adult male hummingbird buzzing around in the bag. What had Gary caught?
We first noticed the throat. It had somewhat pointed feathers like a Calliope but wasn’t streaked. The color was an unusual magenta, somewhere in between pink and purple. And unlike a Black-chinned it had iridescence covering most of the throat.
As we continued to look at the bird we noticed more and more unusual features. It had a mix of gray and buffy on the sides, its tail had some hints of rufous in it, and it’s wing feathers looked like a Black-chinned (for hummingbird nerds: it also had unequal primary widths like a Black-chin, and the central tail feathers were mostly rounded but with a hint of ‘spatulate’ shaping). It’s wing length was small like a Calliope, but it’s bill was long like a Black-chinned.
After lots of examination and measurements, we decided we must have a Hybrid Black-chinned x Calliope on our hands! Interestingly, after a quick google search it appears that a very similar bird was captured and photographed in Garden Valley, ID in 2008: Link here.
We were very lucky to have a bunch of photographers on hand to document this rarity! Check back on this post later as we will continue to add photos from other folks who were there.
Since May 17th of this year we have been conducting our hummingbird monitoring project. We have had 32 hummingbirds return to the same feeders that we originally banded them at over a year ago! Last fall these tiny hummingbirds travelled all the way to western Mexico where they spent the winter and then this spring they made the long trip again from Mexico back to Idaho. Pretty impressive for a bird that weighs about the same as a dime! About two-thirds of these returning birds are females, many of them returning to the same areas to breed again. Some of them might move to areas further north to breed, and have remembered this site as a great place to stop and refuel.
For those that haven’t visited us at one of our hummingbird banding sessions, below is a picture of a band we put on their leg. Each band has one letter and five numbers on it – if you can believe it! See the picture below – you can just make out the letter L and a number 8 (upside down). There are another 4 numbers printed on the other side of the band. Each bird gets a unique ID – sort of like their own social security number. No other hummingbird will have a band with the same number combination.
One of our biggest rewards is watching people revel at such a natural wonder and the opportunity to hold a wild hummingbird in their hand – even if only for a few seconds before the bird takes flight again. It’s a treat each and every time to watch someone do this for the first time. If you want to join us to observe the hummingbird banding process our next dates with availability are July 29, August 10, and August 28. Please email email@example.com to reserve a spot. Space is limited. This event is free and open to everyone.
Over the past few weeks, we have been learning a lot about our Curlews and their behavior. Here are a few maps that show some interesting data about our birds:
Here you can see maps from two of our birds, Borah and Ada.
Borah lives on Big Creek Ranch in the Pahsimeroi valley. You can see based on his map that he rarely leaves his nest area, and has traveled a maximum of 1 mile from his nest.
Ada, on the other hand is nesting in the Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC) near Emmett Idaho. While incubating, she made long journeys between her nest and agricultural fields, where she fed in the evenings while not sitting on the nest. She made journeys of up to 4 miles one-way to feed! *note: this map only shows Ada’s movements before the chicks hatched.
While we haven’t done actual assessments to compare their nesting habitats, we hypothesize that these movement differences are due to the fact that Borah has more food available to him close to his nest, whereas Ada had to travel much farther to find good foraging habitat. (Before he died, ‘Carl’ also did similar long-distance foraging trips from the ACEC to farm fields, so we don’t think these differences are related to the sex of the bird).
We have also observed some parenting differences between our pair Ada and Emmett. A few weeks ago, their chicks hatched, and Liz was lucky enough to observe them just a few hours out of the egg!
Once their chicks hatched, their movements changed. Emmett is the dedicated dad, never leaving the chicks and staying near the nesting area. Ada stayed with the family at first, but made a few trips out to feed in agriculture fields during the week. Her most recent movements show that she has moved to a completely different area of the ACEC and has left Emmett with the parenting duties. This matches up well with what we know about Curlews, since females usually stay with the chicks for 1-3 weeks before leaving the males to continue raising them. Emmett will guard them from predators and guide them to good feeding areas until the chicks eventually fledge and go off on their own at the end of the summer.
Here is a map of their locations since the chicks hatched, showing Emmett’s movements in green, and Ada’s in purple. The yellow circle shows Ada’s most recent locations over the last few days.
We are excited to see what else we can learn about these birds on their breeding grounds, before they take off on their exciting migration journeys!
Read previous posts about our Curlew project by clicking the links below:
Have you checked out our new Curlew info page yet? Click here, or click on the curlew “featured project” picture on the left to read all about the project.
We created a “profile page” for each of the birds, with some info about them and some fun facts. This page will give you the inside scoop on all our Curlews’ names, and how they got them.
We have some bad news to share. Last week Jay became suspicious that something might be wrong with one of our transmitters since it was not transmitting/displaying normally. On Sunday a team led by Liz went out and was able to recover the transmitter but our fears were confirmed – unfortunately, the male Curlew of our pair, CA, is dead.
Because of the delay in finding his remains, we did not find an intact body, and cannot determine how he died. Based on our experience in recent years, our biggest cause for concern with this project was that a transmittered bird would be shot. After all, we see people out shooting – mostly ground squirrels or targets – every day at the study site and the day we trapped this male there was a recently-killed Swainson’s Hawk 150m from the curlew nest. And, we have certain evidence of curlews being shot and killed in 3 of the past 4 seasons (dead curlews with obvious bullet wounds) and we suspect it happens more than we are aware of. On her most recent visit to check the status of the birds over the Memorial Day weekend, Liz had seen numerous people shooting within 150m of where the pair was nesting and had recently hatched their chicks. Curlews become very vocal and defensive, thus easily visible, when they are trying to protect their chicks.
We certainly cannot say that CA was shot, but whether shooting was at issue in this particular case, it remains a real risk for these curlews.
Fortunately, the news is not all bad! CA’s mate, AX has moved to the SE of her nest site by a few kilometers. Though it’s hard to imagine she is still tending chicks (recently-hatched chicks usually don’t move more than 300m in first 5 days), we hope she’s found a safe place. Our second female (alpha flag code “AN”) was still incubating Monday and her eggs are due to hatch today.
On Monday evening, we were able to capture AN’s mate (alpha flag code “AE”) and attach the still-functioning transmitter and we already have signals from him in the nest area.
Lastly, ‘Borah’, who we trapped 12 days ago in the Pahsimeroi Valley seems to be remaining close to his nest site and transmitting normally. Thus, we hope this will just be a bump in the road for our new study and we’ll cross our fingers that all four birds survive and migrate successfully!